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Applications of d-Mannose

Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement “D-mannose“, is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates. Mannose is a C-2 epimer of glucose. Mannose is important in human metabolism, especially in the glycosylation of certain proteins.
Applications of d-Mannose
Novel sugars were expected as alternative sweeteners to sucrose, because of their sweet-taste and low calories. Till now, the uses of d-mannose is limited and just used as a dietary supplement for direct consumption. As shown in Table 5, the current top-selling brands of d-mannose include NOW Foods, Source Naturals, and Vibrant Health. Most products are distributed in the form of capsules or powders containing plant-based d-mannose. Moreover, some features of d-mannose could improve food texture, such as its solubility and anti-melting capability. Because of these special properties, d-mannose has been commercially used in the food industry. d-Mannose has been added to commercially ice-cream, processed fruits, and salad dressings to improve texture (Sutton and Wilcox 1998). Among the sugar analogs tested, d-mannose has some effects in controlling decay in inoculated apple and peach fruit, which can slightly reduce lesion diameter (Elghaouth and others 1995). Takao and others (2008) presented a mannose-based compound comprised of 1 to 10 molecules of d-mannose, which could effectively reduce blood pressure and/or suppress blood pressure elevation without changing ordinary eating habits when applied in food.
Besides the above-mentioned d-mannose physiological function used in the treatment of corresponding diseases, d-mannose is used as an inexpensive starting material for the synthesis of immunostimulatory agents (Ranta and others 2012), antitumor agents (Kamel and others 2010), vitamins (Chen and others 2007), and d-mannitol (Mishra and Hwang 2013). The global market for mannitol is estimated to have annual sales of approximately $100 million. Currently, the biotransformation of mannitol from d-mannose is becoming a new production trend for mannitol. Reduction of d-mannose with sodium borohydride or electrolysis leads to a high d-mannitol yield of over 31% (Ghoreishi and Shahrestani 2009). d-Mannitol is used in the production of drug delivery systems (Chen and others 2005) and in the synthesis of medicines such as oseltamivir phosphate (Chuanopparat and others 2012) and new drugs against AIDS (Botos and others 2002). Moreover, the addition of d-mannose to the natural cytotoxic cell assay significantly blocked cytotoxicity of the fibrosarcoma Meth A target by the effector cells at 50 mM and lower concentrations. In the natural cytotoxic system, recognition involved lectin-like structures with specificity for d-mannose. D-mannose also inhibited natural kill (NK) cell lysis of the lymphoma YAC-1 target, whereas in the NK system such lectin-like structures were less restricted (Stutman and others 1980). Peri-spinal treatment with d-mannose may optimize naked pDNA-IL-10 transgene uptake for suppression of allodynia, and is a novel approach to tune spinal immune cells toward pro-phagocytic phenotype for improved non-viral gene therapy (Dengler and others 2014).
Aloe vera is good for health and beauty, and its function is closely correlated with the presence of mannose-rich polysaccharides (Eshun and He 2004). Similarly to d-glucose, d-fructose, d-ribose, and d-xylose, d-mannose is an auxiliary moisturizing agent that is widely used in skin-care products. The d-mannose units are linked to each other by β(1-4) glycosidic linkages. d-Mannose exhibits excellent moisturizing and skin feel capabilities, and leaves the skin less taut, less dry, and more moisturized (Schmidt and others 1991). Deckner and Wivell (1997) patented a product featuring components that provide both skin-cleansing and skin-moisturizing benefits. The product contains d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-glucuronate in a molar ratio of 2.8:2.0:2.0.Feed additives
Over the past several decades, antibiotics have been widely used in animal agriculture and have displayed therapeutic effects against disease to improve growth performance (Witte 1998). However, now antibiotics have come under increasing scrutiny because of the potential development of antibiotic-resistant human pathogenic bacteria after their long-term use (Allen and others 2013; Cully 2014). Indeed, there is growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain (Santin and others 2001). People have begun to look for other ways to replace antibiotics as feed additives. d-Mannose could strongly inhibit the attachment of S. typhimurium to intestinal cells of day-old chickens in vitro and offer a competitive binding site for a certain class of bacteria (Oyofo and others 1989). Moreover, mannan-oligosaccharides may be used as alternative antibiotics to improve turkey health (Parks and others2001). A commercial product available for poultry contains yeast cell wall fragments derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae after centrifugation of a lysed yeast culture, because the cell wall of yeast contains a large amount of mannans (Van Immerseel and others 2002). For now, d-mannose is the most effective sugar at blocking colonization and is used extensively in animal feeds to inhibit the growth of intestinal pathogens (Berge and Wierup 2012; Galis and others 2013).
Other applications
In modern scientific research, d-mannose plays an increasing significant role in various areas. d-Mannose can be used as a carbohydrate source in a synthetic medium or as a constituent of chemically defined media for cell culture (Wang and others 2000). In transgenic technology, scientists have used d-mannose as a marker that has enabled plant cells to grow and form new plants. d-Mannose could be an alternative to antibiotic resistance genes as markers in future transgenic crops. To date, hundreds of primary transgenic rice plants of different cultivars have been obtained from mannose-resistant cells (Datta and others 2003).
In conclusion, d-mannose is a common sugar existing in various foods. Because of its diversified properties, d-mannose has attracted increasing attention from the food industry and academia. This review of literature has revealed that d-mannose, as a highly potential functional and valuable ingredient, exhibits relatively impressive biological functions of great interest in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The use of chemical methods in the production of d-mannose has the advantages of applying rapid and convenient processes, but some consumers do not agree with the production by chemical methods. Thus, with ongoing efforts in research and development, the biotransformation approach to d-mannose production with enzymes has gradually gained increasing interest and has become the most promising method. The results of a comparison of bio-enzymes suggest that MIases are promising enzymes for d-mannose biosynthesis; however, from a previous study, the conversion rates of reported MIases from d-fructose are inadequate (15 to 35%), and it is suggested that the exploration of novel enzymes with high conversion efficiency can significantly promote the production of d-mannose. In addition, further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of d-mannose, especially focusing on its performance in food systems.Related reading:D-mannose Cas 3458-28-4    D-galactose NAD


LOPO Project-Changsha Normal University Use Terracotta Architectural Panels

Changsha Normal University belongs to public colleges, the school history can be traced back to 1912 by the famous educator Xu Te Li founded the Changsha County Normal School, It was formally upgrade from college to university in April 2013, named Changsha Normal University. The school has two campuses with south and north, the area more than 1100 acres, construction area of 328,400 square meters.

Changsha Normal University with orange as the main color, orange on behalf of vitality, sunshine, vibrant lively, and students period is very consistent. The design use of lotus form as a source of inspiration, through the curve of the drawing highlights the shape of pre-flying pigeons. Meaning the wings of the students, and humanitarian teaching the nature of the school.

The architectural designers have selected LOPO terracotta architectural panels 450mm wide and 18mm thick. These panels combine vertically and horizontal installed to extend the vertical lines of low-rise buildings.


Item No.:F2030562/F6030528

Welcome to contact us for your own customized terracotta rainscreen panels.

Related reading: Terracotta Panel LOPO Terracotta

The Necessity Of Building Sponge City – Rainwater Harvesting Module

The sponge city means city can soaked up water like sponge. This kind of city would be able to maximize retain of rainwater. Specifically, it is provided a plurality of plots in the city district, with the construction of absorbent material, as a sponge, when the time of rainstorm, it become a water storage place.Whether it is the mud, grass, tree or lakes absorb a lot of rain. In this way, the water can be digested, avoid the flooding. When those rain be absorb by the sponge, The problem of water accumulation has also been alleviated.

The amount of rainwater can be used again, such as landscaping irrigation, garden water, toilet flushing, car washing, can alleviate the shortage of water resources situation in a certain extent.

Speaking of the sponge city, what I have to mention is Rainwater Harvesting Module, as the heart part of sponge city, Leiyuan GS-TANKs is devoted to Rainwater harvesting tank’s research and development. By this time, has developed into fifth generation- M2016S tank and M2016B tank.

M2016 series, Uniquely using the hollow circular column as the key supporting point, not only maximized the specificstorage, but also enhance the bearing capacity to 45T/sqm. Structure more simple, transportation and installation more convenient.

More products detail please visit

Related reading: Rainwater harvesting tank Rain Water Harvesting Modular

How Does GS Hoof Grid Differ From Flexible Plastic Grid?

Many owners of stud-farm are plagued by several problems. They got tired of filling holes that dug by young horses. The ground could turn muddy and wet when spring is coming. What’s more, their horse could fall during training or just take a walk. Under such a circumstance, ground stabilization grid is a great choice for owners. There are a number of grids available which are mostly tailored especially to meet one or several use-cases and as always it’s great for customers to have choice. The stabilization grid could be roughly divided into 2 categories, flexible and rigid. Flexible here doesn’t mean flexibility for construction but their materials are retractable. So how could be distinguish when to use flexible grid and when to choose rigid one? The author is going to enumerate several differences between them.

  1. Appearance

Here are two pictures of flexible grid and rigid grid (Our product-GS Hoof Grid), we can see clearly that flexible grid is soft enough to fold into a bundle, which is absolutely a great solution for saving shipping cost. Comparing with GS paddock grid which is made from 100% recycled HDPE, its flexibility and storage space is not comparable with flexible grid.

  1. Function

Theoretically, they are both used as stabilization of muddy ground. This is the biggest difference between them. GS hoof grid can be filled with mud and gravel without any extend to ensure the stability of ground. In the meantime, it can prevent your horse from digging ground and infiltrate the water away from heavy rain.

  1. Cost

As far as I am concerned, the cost calculation between GS hoof grid and flexible grid has no obviously difference. They both need to be installed by manpower, but for further benefit, GS paddock would bring you more comfortable using experience.

Lopo Developed A New Production Method For Terracotta Louvers To Be Covered On A Arc Wall Surface

We all know that terracotta panel can be used in arc structure building. But the traditional installation was affected by the radius of the arc. Because people use the flat surface panels to cover on the arc wall. When the radius is more than 3 meter, Installation direction can be either vertical or horizontal. Adjust the angle of facade terracotta panel connection can be achieve arc. By adjusting the joint angle between two panels, it is easy to achieve the circular-arc-shape. The ceramic panels are using vertical fixing method when the radius of the building arc is less than 3 meters.

However, this installation method always can not meet designer’s ideal concept. LOPO technician team focus on saving this problem for a long time. Since the production lines upgraded, they developed a new method for arc wall construction.

You can see below item picture, by using several pieces, it is much easier to cover on the round building.

Hope you like LOPO new products! If you want to know how we produce this kind of product, just click contact us!

How To Manage The Raw Materials Used In The Production Of Concrete Batching Plant?

  1. The raw materials used in the production of the Concrete Batching Plantmust be compatible with the mix proportion design.
  2. All raw materials should be stored separately in the warehouse, each warehouse should be separated from the wall. The height of the wall should be sufficient to prevent the material from being mixed together. The ground set 2% drainage slope, and set up the drain in front of the materials warehouse.
  3. In general, fine aggregate should use natural river sand, through Appropriate blending, screen out excess unqualified parts to adjust the particle size of sand,(It need to screen our when more than 4.75 mm size stones are too much). Due to the insufficient supply of natural river sand, it is also possible to adopt the artificial mechanism sand which is manufactured by the advanced equipment by the supervision and the owners’ approval.
  4. Coarse aggregates should be crushed by large size rocks. In order to reduce the pellet grain of coarse aggregate, it is advisable to use a cone type press or rotary press machine with curved pressure plate.
  5. Coarse aggregate and fine aggregate storage should meet the needs of the two production peaks, the number of warehouses should be the maximum to meet the storage of materials of different manufacturers. To ensure sand moisture stability in the production of the concrete batching plant, should be set at least two qualified sand warehouse to use.
  6. In raw materials should be in accordance with the provisions, fill in the material identification card, id card shall indicate the name of the material, the manufacturer, specification, batch number, quantity, arrival time, testing status, report number, etc.
  7. After the testing of raw materials, the test report will be provided to the material officer in written form by the testing room of concrete batching plant. And update the inspectionstatus of the material in time.
  8. To avoid rain pollution, The top of the reservoir that storage the water used in the production process of concrete batching plant needs to be covered with shelter. The water quality should be tested and qualified before it can be put into production.

If you want to know more information about concrete batching plant, please log on our xindaplant.

Reated reading: Ready Mixed Concrete batching Plant Stationary Concrete Batching Plant

The Disadvantage of Concrete Tank

  1. Installation: A concrete storage tank is more complex to install, for it is too heavy to pick up, so it would
    need both crane and workers during installation. Under such a situation, the manpower cost would be more expensive.While our underground tank is made of 100% recyclable PP which is a high strength plastic material, light enough to pickup by hand and also installed by workers in a very short time. Saving you time and effort.

    2. Leaching: Leaching can occur in concrete storage tanks. This is because concrete is porous and is made with calcium carbonate. If the water in the tank is acidic, it will leach the calcium from the concrete into the water. This results in hard water. Another disadvantage of porous concrete is that the pores provide bacteria with a place to grab a foothold and grow. As we know, PP is a very stable material, it will not react with acidity or alkalinity underground. What’s more, PP material is non-porous, which means they won’t leach chemicals into the water, and provide no spaces for bacteria growth.

    3. Serve Life: Due to reasons above, concrete tank could be eventually broke, then how can we repair this? I believe the most effective way is to replace it with an entirely new one. In this case, triple or quadruple costs are spending. While underground tank can reach 40 years of serve life and even more to reusable at the end of their serve life.
    4. Function: Concrete storage tank can only functioned as water storage tank, while underground tank can be functioned as soakaway crates and water storage tank differed by assembly method and matching material.