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Applications of d-Mannose

Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement “D-mannose“, is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates. Mannose is a C-2 epimer of glucose. Mannose is important in human metabolism, especially in the glycosylation of certain proteins.
Applications of d-Mannose
Food
Novel sugars were expected as alternative sweeteners to sucrose, because of their sweet-taste and low calories. Till now, the uses of d-mannose is limited and just used as a dietary supplement for direct consumption. As shown in Table 5, the current top-selling brands of d-mannose include NOW Foods, Source Naturals, and Vibrant Health. Most products are distributed in the form of capsules or powders containing plant-based d-mannose. Moreover, some features of d-mannose could improve food texture, such as its solubility and anti-melting capability. Because of these special properties, d-mannose has been commercially used in the food industry. d-Mannose has been added to commercially ice-cream, processed fruits, and salad dressings to improve texture (Sutton and Wilcox 1998). Among the sugar analogs tested, d-mannose has some effects in controlling decay in inoculated apple and peach fruit, which can slightly reduce lesion diameter (Elghaouth and others 1995). Takao and others (2008) presented a mannose-based compound comprised of 1 to 10 molecules of d-mannose, which could effectively reduce blood pressure and/or suppress blood pressure elevation without changing ordinary eating habits when applied in food.
Medicine
Besides the above-mentioned d-mannose physiological function used in the treatment of corresponding diseases, d-mannose is used as an inexpensive starting material for the synthesis of immunostimulatory agents (Ranta and others 2012), antitumor agents (Kamel and others 2010), vitamins (Chen and others 2007), and d-mannitol (Mishra and Hwang 2013). The global market for mannitol is estimated to have annual sales of approximately $100 million. Currently, the biotransformation of mannitol from d-mannose is becoming a new production trend for mannitol. Reduction of d-mannose with sodium borohydride or electrolysis leads to a high d-mannitol yield of over 31% (Ghoreishi and Shahrestani 2009). d-Mannitol is used in the production of drug delivery systems (Chen and others 2005) and in the synthesis of medicines such as oseltamivir phosphate (Chuanopparat and others 2012) and new drugs against AIDS (Botos and others 2002). Moreover, the addition of d-mannose to the natural cytotoxic cell assay significantly blocked cytotoxicity of the fibrosarcoma Meth A target by the effector cells at 50 mM and lower concentrations. In the natural cytotoxic system, recognition involved lectin-like structures with specificity for d-mannose. D-mannose also inhibited natural kill (NK) cell lysis of the lymphoma YAC-1 target, whereas in the NK system such lectin-like structures were less restricted (Stutman and others 1980). Peri-spinal treatment with d-mannose may optimize naked pDNA-IL-10 transgene uptake for suppression of allodynia, and is a novel approach to tune spinal immune cells toward pro-phagocytic phenotype for improved non-viral gene therapy (Dengler and others 2014).
Cosmetics
Aloe vera is good for health and beauty, and its function is closely correlated with the presence of mannose-rich polysaccharides (Eshun and He 2004). Similarly to d-glucose, d-fructose, d-ribose, and d-xylose, d-mannose is an auxiliary moisturizing agent that is widely used in skin-care products. The d-mannose units are linked to each other by β(1-4) glycosidic linkages. d-Mannose exhibits excellent moisturizing and skin feel capabilities, and leaves the skin less taut, less dry, and more moisturized (Schmidt and others 1991). Deckner and Wivell (1997) patented a product featuring components that provide both skin-cleansing and skin-moisturizing benefits. The product contains d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-glucuronate in a molar ratio of 2.8:2.0:2.0.Feed additives
Over the past several decades, antibiotics have been widely used in animal agriculture and have displayed therapeutic effects against disease to improve growth performance (Witte 1998). However, now antibiotics have come under increasing scrutiny because of the potential development of antibiotic-resistant human pathogenic bacteria after their long-term use (Allen and others 2013; Cully 2014). Indeed, there is growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain (Santin and others 2001). People have begun to look for other ways to replace antibiotics as feed additives. d-Mannose could strongly inhibit the attachment of S. typhimurium to intestinal cells of day-old chickens in vitro and offer a competitive binding site for a certain class of bacteria (Oyofo and others 1989). Moreover, mannan-oligosaccharides may be used as alternative antibiotics to improve turkey health (Parks and others2001). A commercial product available for poultry contains yeast cell wall fragments derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae after centrifugation of a lysed yeast culture, because the cell wall of yeast contains a large amount of mannans (Van Immerseel and others 2002). For now, d-mannose is the most effective sugar at blocking colonization and is used extensively in animal feeds to inhibit the growth of intestinal pathogens (Berge and Wierup 2012; Galis and others 2013).
Other applications
In modern scientific research, d-mannose plays an increasing significant role in various areas. d-Mannose can be used as a carbohydrate source in a synthetic medium or as a constituent of chemically defined media for cell culture (Wang and others 2000). In transgenic technology, scientists have used d-mannose as a marker that has enabled plant cells to grow and form new plants. d-Mannose could be an alternative to antibiotic resistance genes as markers in future transgenic crops. To date, hundreds of primary transgenic rice plants of different cultivars have been obtained from mannose-resistant cells (Datta and others 2003).
Conclusions
In conclusion, d-mannose is a common sugar existing in various foods. Because of its diversified properties, d-mannose has attracted increasing attention from the food industry and academia. This review of literature has revealed that d-mannose, as a highly potential functional and valuable ingredient, exhibits relatively impressive biological functions of great interest in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The use of chemical methods in the production of d-mannose has the advantages of applying rapid and convenient processes, but some consumers do not agree with the production by chemical methods. Thus, with ongoing efforts in research and development, the biotransformation approach to d-mannose production with enzymes has gradually gained increasing interest and has become the most promising method. The results of a comparison of bio-enzymes suggest that MIases are promising enzymes for d-mannose biosynthesis; however, from a previous study, the conversion rates of reported MIases from d-fructose are inadequate (15 to 35%), and it is suggested that the exploration of novel enzymes with high conversion efficiency can significantly promote the production of d-mannose. In addition, further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of d-mannose, especially focusing on its performance in food systems.Related reading:D-mannose Cas 3458-28-4    D-galactose NAD

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4 tips when installing new amusement game machine in your game center

Installation of new game machines is very important after buying them,and some skills are necessary during the installation which requires professionals.What should we pay attention to when installing kids game machines?

More and more kids will go to kids game center for fun nowadays.Usually Owners check machines everyday and players take care of the dos and don’ts to avoid accidents,but actually there are many matters we need to pay attention to while installation before operation.

What problems we should pay attention to while install kids game machines?

1.During installation,all sharp corners,protuberances are prohibited in all touchable positions,decorations on machines must be fixed firmly.

2.Notices such as instructions and dos and don’ts on machines are necessary.Put them in conspicuous position,players will measure if they are available or not.

3.While installation,do not put the huge machines directly on floor for less bother.Must fix the machine on floor or fix them with tools to avoid collapse accidents.

4.Game machines installation must follow the manual from supplier instead of using own methods.To avoid the situation that all kinds of problems occurs after using period of time while it looks good surfacely.All operators must try to install and debug machines at first,in order to avoid various of problems in the future.

For outsource installation,complete quality documents of manufacture and installation should be offered.For manufacturer and installation from one same supplier,final quality documents could offer just one file but include both certificates of manufacture and installation.

If you are interested in crane machine, kiddie rides and other amusement game machines, please visit our website (www.noqi-game.com) for more information.

Related reading:indoor basketball game  coin operated game machine

What are the current problems of the crane machine operation?

1-Hard to change for coin to play
When customers don’t has coins or just finish the coins at hand,they have to find a coin changing machine or use online payment.For the owner,it not only increase the cost of coin changing machine but also takes a lot of time to count the coins and bills.

2-Insufficient innovation of play mode.
At the moment most crane game machine use the traditional joystick method to play and customers find it less interesting.So some innovation machines with different play mode like “Crazy scissors”,”Push&Win” are more interesting to customers.

3-The lack of confidence of customer.
After it becomes a public secret that the winning ratio can be set in advance,customers have less confidence in crane machine now.

4-Low quality toys.
What really attract customers to play is the toys inside.However,a lot of toys are copys with low quality,unfeatured appearance.It it hard to draw people’s attention when they are passing by the cranes.

5-Old design cabinet.
Many cranes in the market are the ones with dated design and dim color and there are too many same designs.It is hard to distinguish your cranes with others and customers won’t come to play again.

In the next artical we will discuss about how to solve these problems.

If you are interested in crane machine, kiddie rides and other amusement game machines, please

visit our website (www.noqi-game.com) for more information.

Related reading:toy crane machine arcade crane machine

LOPO Project-Changsha Normal University Use Terracotta Architectural Panels

Changsha Normal University belongs to public colleges, the school history can be traced back to 1912 by the famous educator Xu Te Li founded the Changsha County Normal School, It was formally upgrade from college to university in April 2013, named Changsha Normal University. The school has two campuses with south and north, the area more than 1100 acres, construction area of 328,400 square meters.

Changsha Normal University with orange as the main color, orange on behalf of vitality, sunshine, vibrant lively, and students period is very consistent. The design use of lotus form as a source of inspiration, through the curve of the drawing highlights the shape of pre-flying pigeons. Meaning the wings of the students, and humanitarian teaching the nature of the school.

The architectural designers have selected LOPO terracotta architectural panels 450mm wide and 18mm thick. These panels combine vertically and horizontal installed to extend the vertical lines of low-rise buildings.

 

Item No.:F2030562/F6030528

Welcome to contact us for your own customized terracotta rainscreen panels.

Related reading: Terracotta Panel LOPO Terracotta

The Necessity Of Building Sponge City – Rainwater Harvesting Module

The sponge city means city can soaked up water like sponge. This kind of city would be able to maximize retain of rainwater. Specifically, it is provided a plurality of plots in the city district, with the construction of absorbent material, as a sponge, when the time of rainstorm, it become a water storage place.Whether it is the mud, grass, tree or lakes absorb a lot of rain. In this way, the water can be digested, avoid the flooding. When those rain be absorb by the sponge, The problem of water accumulation has also been alleviated.

The amount of rainwater can be used again, such as landscaping irrigation, garden water, toilet flushing, car washing, can alleviate the shortage of water resources situation in a certain extent.

Speaking of the sponge city, what I have to mention is Rainwater Harvesting Module, as the heart part of sponge city, Leiyuan GS-TANKs is devoted to Rainwater harvesting tank’s research and development. By this time, has developed into fifth generation- M2016S tank and M2016B tank.

M2016 series, Uniquely using the hollow circular column as the key supporting point, not only maximized the specificstorage, but also enhance the bearing capacity to 45T/sqm. Structure more simple, transportation and installation more convenient.

More products detail please visit www.greengrassgrid.com.

Related reading: Rainwater harvesting tank Rain Water Harvesting Modular

Global Anti-acne Cleanser 2017-2022 Market Overview

QYResearch Group had completed a new survey project named as Global Anti Acne Cleanser Market Research Report 2017. It is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Anti Acne products industry. Along with the previous market surveys on other Anti Acne Cosmetics, this report is a valuable source for both companies and individuals who are interested in this industry. QYResearch also provide multi-user version for enterprise or associations and public institutions.

Currently, there are many players in anti-acne cleanser market. The main market players internationally are Clinique, Proactiv, Murad, Neutrogena, Ancalima Lifesciences Ltd, Vichy, La Roche-Posay, Mentholatum, Kose, Doctor Li and etc. Brands like Kiehl’s, Pond’s, Cetaphil and some others are also playing important roles in anti-acne cleanser industry. The market is not so concentrated for now and is seeing to be more dispersed.

According to QYResearch, Global Anti Acne Cleanser market is valued at USD 899.16 million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD 1019.28 million by the end of 2022, growing at a Growth Rate of 2.11% between 2016 and 2022. North America is the biggest production areas for anti-acne cleansers, taking about 29.11% market share in 2016 (based on revenue). Europe followed the second, with about 23.45% market share (based on revenue in 2016).

There are many different types of anti-acne cleansers. Based on basic active ingredients, the market can be segmented into: Salicylic acid, Benzoyl peroxide and some others. Salicylic acid and Benzoyl peroxide are the most commonly used and efficient types. Women are the largest consumer group, with consumption market share of 54.81% in 2016.

Related reading: Global Anti Acne Cleanser market Slow Grow Lotion Sales Market Report

The Introduction Of The Baby Diaper

A diaper or a nappy is a type of underwear that allows the wearer to defecate orurinate without the use of a toilet, by absorbing or containing waste products to prevent soiling of outer clothing or the external environment.

When diapers become soiled, they require changing, generally by a second person such as a parent or caregiver. Failure to change a diaper on a sufficiently regular basis can result in skin problems around the area covered by the diaper.

Diapers are made of cloth or synthetic disposable materials. Cloth diapers are composed of layers of fabric such as cotton, hemp, bamboo, microfiber, or even plastic fibers such as PLA, and can be washed and reused multiple times.

Disposable diapers contain absorbent chemicals and are thrown away after use. Plastic pants can be worn over diapers to avoid leaks, but with modern cloth diapers, this is no longer necessary.

Diapers are primarily worn by infants, and by children who are not yet potty trained or who experience bedwetting. They are also used by adults with incontinence or in certain circumstances where access to a toilet is unavailable. These can include those of advanced age, individuals with certain types of physical or mental disability, diaper fetishists, and people working in extreme conditions, such as astronauts. It is not uncommon for people to wear diapers under dry suits.

Nowadays, the baby diaper get a big improve both in the quality and the design.

Usually, there are four kinds of diaper with totally different design. The most typical one is the the I shape baby diaper. this diaper has a long history. The characteristic of this diaper is: the middle channel of the diaper is narrow while the two ends are wider, which make the leg of the baby feel more comfortable.

T type baby diaper is very popular in western countries. A very famous brand named pampers use this design.

Big waistband baby diaper, this diaper, just like its name, it has a big waistband. Thanks to the big elastic waistband, the baby will not feel uncomfortable as well as the diaper is tight enough to prevent sideleakage.

Last one , Pull on baby diaper,this diaper also name as baby training pants. This diaper is suitable for babies who are learning to walk. It looks like a underwear.

The raw material to make baby diaper are: hydrophilic nonwoven fabric, spunbond nonwoven, thermal nonwoven fabric, air through non woven to make topsheet, hydrophobic non woven to make legcuff, ADL nonwoven, elastic string, glue, sap, airlaid paper and tissue paper, laminated film or pe film to make the backsheet.

Where can you find those raw material with a good price? visit our website: www.qzniso.com for more information.

Related reading: Spunbond nonwoven fabric baby training pants